The appearance of a black plaque indicates that mold dangerous to humans has settled in the apartment or house. Such a fungus is difficult to remove on their own, so it is important to start treatment when the first signs of infection appear. However, destroying microorganisms is not enough – you should take care to take preventive measures to prevent the re-attack of harmful spores.
What is black mold
The mold fungus appears on various surfaces and can multiply very actively, destroying the room and causing it to fall into disrepair. The microorganisms are especially dangerous for the human body. No matter what is planned to remove mold, it is important to know the background of its appearance, so it does not arise in the room again.
Danger of black mold to humans
Black mold is a fungus that is extremely dangerous to adults and children. Toxic substances released by colonies of these microorganisms can cause:
- dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis;
- asthma, pneumonia, other respiratory diseases;
- joint diseases;
- kidney and liver disorders;
- Dental problems (stomatitis, thrush);
- genital candidiasis.
Scientists suggest that the more dangerous mold there is, the greater the likelihood of cancer. Spores penetrate the body, settle on internal organs and mucous membranes, activate the process of decomposition of cells and tissues.
During infection of the body with mold fungus, diagnosis is very difficult, because this type of mold is not always distinguishable. As a result, therapy is prescribed too late, and at best the disease develops into a chronic form, at worst irreversible consequences occur.
Resistant fungi are excreted very hard, they can exist both in the cold and at high air temperature. Death of microorganisms is observed only with boiling.
Black mold in the home is dangerous to humans and the longer its presence in the home, the higher the likelihood of the following symptoms:
- Active hair loss;
- memory impairment;
- numbness of the extremities;
- pain and other discomfort in the abdomen;
- eye sensitivity to light;
- an unexplained increase in body weight;
- muscle cramps.
How black mold develops
The emergence and spread of black plaque is promoted by heat and moisture. Humidity up to 68% and temperature up to 77°F are the most optimal conditions.) If the room is ventilated extremely rarely, the fungus is sure to appear.
- Doors and windows with plastic profiles. If used incorrectly, they are a provoking factor. Plastic profiles prevent the constant movement of air due to their tightness. If the installation was carried out improperly, and the products themselves are of poor quality, the formation of condensation occurs. This creates the right conditions for the active growth and development of fungus. The solution to the problem is a supply valve on the windows and regular ventilation of the premises.
- Gypsum board. The material is capable of absorbing moisture and holding it for a long time. In order not to get black mold, it is necessary to adhere to all the rules of installation of structures and leave enough time for their complete drying. There are special varieties of plasterboard, designed for conditions of high humidity, if installation is carried out in such a room. It is necessary to add antifungal compositions to the solutions used.
- Insufficient ventilation. Most often such a problem is observed in the bathroom and the bathroom. Lack of windows, regular water procedures, drying laundry contribute to a significant increase in air humidity, which an ordinary extractor cannot cope with. Forced ventilation comes to the rescue.
- Wet walls and ceiling, damp environment in the basement. Sometimes errors in the design and construction phase lead to the fact that when precipitation falls, the corners of buildings get wet and then freeze in the winter. The same is true if downspouts are clogged or missing. In a damp basement, mold fungi can actively reproduce and then enter the living rooms and other rooms through the ventilation system.
- Foodstuffs. If store-bought bread is baked from moldy grains, it quickly gets covered with fungal growth. Such a product is dangerous to life. You should pack the piece in a plastic bag and throw it in the trash outside the house.
The first signs of black mold in your home
If black mold fungi have settled in your home, you can tell by the following signs:
- Dark spots, stains, and a steady plaque on walls and other surfaces;
- darkening of joints between tile panels in the bathroom bathroom or kitchen;
- a specific smell from the air conditioner or heating appliances;
- Wallpaper coming off the walls;
- Persistent colds in occupants, symptoms of bronchial asthma, allergies, and itching;
- Stale indoor air;
- Unreasonable feeling of fatigue and loss of energy;
- cases of flooding in the bathroom or toilet.
Types of black mold
Black mold, which is visible to the naked eye, is the external manifestation of colonies of fungus. Such microorganisms can be of different types, but the following types are the most common in living areas:
- Aspergillus black. It actively multiplies and exists in the humid environment that is present in bathrooms, toilets, swimming pools, and kitchens. Mold of this species can often be seen in washing machines, air conditioners, and home humidifiers. Even with the slightest fluctuation of wind, the spores are spread throughout the room, penetrating into the airways of humans and animals, settling on clothing, food products. Mold causes serious pathological processes in the human body up to death.
- Aspergillus smoke. This type of fungus is resistant to high temperatures (up to 131°F or 55°C). The spores easily enter the human body due to their very small size. People with a weakened immune system are most susceptible to infection. Most often such mold is found on fruits and vegetables with mechanical damage. Toxins released by fungi cause allergies and destroy red blood cells (erythrocytes) in biological material, preventing the strengthening of the immune system.
- Alternaria alternata. This kind of fungus is most often found on dying autumn leaves, spoiled fruits and vegetables. The microorganisms easily take root on food, clothing, and other textiles. The fungus likes humidity, but the spores spread in dry, windy weather under sunlight. Wooden homes are more susceptible to such mold infiltration than structures made of concrete.
How to get rid of black mold
The more dangerous mold in a home, the harder it is to get rid of. If the area of damage is insignificant, and the fungus has just begun to spread through the room, you can try to destroy it with improvised means or chemical compositions. If there is no positive result of fighting this mold on your own, you will have to turn to professionals to remove this dangerous fungus.
In order for black mold not to bring harm to health and other negative consequences, as well as for more effective treatment, it is necessary to adhere to the following rules:
- wear a respirator, gloves and safety glasses during the manipulation to remove microorganisms;
- Cover surfaces not covered with plaque with plastic sheeting to prevent it from migrating from damaged objects;
- as many clean items as possible should be temporarily removed from the room to be treated;
- if mold has invaded a large area, unaffected objects should be wrapped securely in plastic film;
- to prevent mold spores from spreading throughout the room or another room, it is forbidden to open a window or turn on a fan;
- Never use a vacuum cleaner to remove mold from surfaces, because the mold spores will remain inside the electrical appliance and will wait for the right time and conditions for active reproduction;
- It is recommended to dry the air in the room with a special device – fungi do not live in such an environment;
- after the manipulation of cleaning surfaces from microorganisms should be thrown out all used rags, film, protective gloves, masks and other devices that may have remained on the spores.
Black mold fungi are afraid of dry air and high temperatures, so microwave drying is one of the best methods with which to destroy plaque and spores – black mold in the apartment is dangerous because it penetrates very deeply and is rarely removed by home compounds. Advantages of microwave:
- treatment of any surfaces in different rooms;
- safety for people and pets;
- does not require preparatory actions;
- it is possible to remove fungus through other surfaces;
- small time costs even with large areas of damage.
Laser beams penetrate deep into the material (up to 14″), heat it to 158°F and kill the spores and fungus. This way you can get rid of black mold forever.
Prevention after mold removal procedure
Fighting harmful mold with anything is a long, labor-intensive process. It is much easier to take measures to prevent the appearance of mold on surfaces in the house:
- Regularly ventilate all rooms, especially the bathroom and toilet;
- Clean your home well and disinfect it periodically;
- monitor the humidity, to be interested in this indicator in the neighbor’s apartments, common basement rooms;
- prevent the formation of condensation on windows, walls and doors;
- waterproof the basement if it is very damp;
- to treat the planes with special antifungal agents;
- Insulate the room if it freezes in the cold season.
When expert help is needed
In most cases, the use of folk recipes and household chemicals does not bring results. Only the visible part of the plaque is removed, the fungus remains deep inside, so after some time the fungus colonies reappear in the room. It is possible to remove mold for good only with the help of professionals. Stages of fungus removal by professionals:
- Assessment of the area and the degree of penetration;
- evacuation of fabric products and other undamaged items from the premises;
- destruction of all visible areas with fungus, including plaster;
- microwave treatment;
- application of fungicides;
Defeating black mold is very difficult, but it is possible. It is important to provide indoor conditions that prevent the emergence and reproduction of the fungus. If the moldy plaque still appeared, you need to remove it as quickly as possible with the help of professional or improvised means.